Get smarter with context and commentary on the week’s top blockchain & crypto trends in Asia. Ether prices, which made steady gains over the last two weeks in anticipation of the Ethereum London upgrade, are now stalled now that the hard fork is just 24 hours away. ETH rose in a historic run in anticipation of ‘Ethereum halving’ — but dipped on the eve of the London hard fork.
The world’s second-largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization is up more than $300 from its daily lows, with a 4.83% gain over the past 24 hours. Ethereum is a decentralized, peer-to-peer network, so anyone who is currently running Ethereum infrastructure will need to update their software to an Ethereum client version that is “fork-ready,” and should do so before December 1st. That may well be true, as high gas fees combined with high coin prices keep those on the outside of Ethereum looking in. But to those already invested, the burn is infinitely better than a fire sale. Since EIP-1559 went into effect, over $4 billion in transaction fees have been destroyed by the Ethereum network. Ethereum’s blockchain uses Merkle trees, for security reasons, to improve scalability, and to optimize transaction hashing. As with any Merkle tree implementation, it allows for storage savings, set membership proofs (called “Merkle proofs”), and light client synchronization.
Ether prices rose in digital-asset markets on Thursday after the Ethereum blockchain’s “London hard fork” went live, and cryptocurrency analysts are now weighing in on the impact of the network upgrade. This work was done by Gavin Wood, then the chief technology officer, in the Ethereum Yellow Paper that specified the Ethereum Virtual Machine. Subsequently, a Swiss non-profit foundation, the Ethereum Foundation , was created as well. Development was funded by an online public crowdsale from July to August 2014, with the participants buying the Ethereum value token with another digital currency, Bitcoin. While there was early praise for the technical innovations of Ethereum, questions were also raised about its security and scalability. The fee market upgrade in EIP 1559 implemented a 12.5% base fee increase or decrease per block, depending on the level of demand in the previous block.
In April 2021, JP Morgan Chase, UBS, and MasterCard announced that they were investing $65 million into ConsenSys, a software development firm that builds Ethereum-related infrastructure. On-chain governance is a governance system for blockchain in which rules are hardcoded into protocol.
EIP-1559 willdecreasethe profits made by Ethereum miners who previously received those funds, but it is expected to make Ether more scarce and consequently cause its price to soar over time. The phenomenal rise of DeFi apps such as Uniswap and Pancake swap have added to an already congested network. With more DeFi products coming online and network use continuing to rise, creating a system that simplifies (well, sort of!) Ethereum network transaction fees are important. Ethereum London, the name of the hard fork, should bring some well-needed stability back to the Ethereum network after months of unpredictable fees and slow transactions. Core developers and client teams agreed to postpone the difficulty bomb, the increase in the network complexity of puzzles for its Proof-of-Work chain, and add “other one-line changes”.
The series of EIP upgrades require miners and nodes to update their software in order to keep interacting with Ethereum’s blockchain. Since the upgrade is not backward-compatible, it is known as a ‘hard fork’ — if a node doesn’t upgrade its blockchain, it can no longer be a part of the network. The Ethereum network is one of the most established and probably the most used blockchains today. Its toolkit of functions has enabled it to become the home for multiple stablecoins, countless NFTs (non-fungible tokens), dapps and DeFi projects . Moreover, its native digital asset, ETH , holds the position of second-largest cryptocurrency value by market cap.
However, all of the miners need to agree about the new rules and about what comprises a valid block in the chain. So when you want to change those rules you need to “fork it”—like a fork in a road—to indicate that there’s been a change in or a diversion to the protocol. The developers can then update all of the software to reflect the new rules. However, miners still have an additional stream of revenue over the two Ether reward that they receive for every newly minted block. The EIP-1559 also adds the concept of a “tip” to the transaction pricing mechanism.
📖Bitocoin Cash, el resultado de un hard fork muy polémica en la blockchain de Bitcoin en 2017.
— Phemex en Español (@PhemexSpanish) December 6, 2021
When that happens, miners will become obsolete, with stakers assuming the responsibility of confirming transactions on the network. While the London hard fork did not complete the move to PoS, it did implement some significant changes that affect miners’ ability to earn rewards. Perhaps more importantly, it served as a reminder that miners’ time on Ethereum appears to be limited. However, the launch of the upgrade has been postponed several times due to development hitches. While further delays are possible, the launch of a fully-functional Eth2.0 is slated to be completed in late 2021 or early 2022. To ensure that the upgrade is successful, the installation of new features has been divided into three smaller milestones referred to as hard forks. However, as Ethereum has become more popular, it has faced its share of growing pains.
Currently, he is focusing on a metric that looks at the percentage of EIP 1559 transactions, which is currently very low. He compares what was happening to a ferry boat’s prices for passengers. In setting a price that ultimately is too low, the ferry needs as much space as possible to try and accommodate the influx of people wanting to ride at that price.
Dogecoin is a P2P open source cryptocurrency mainly used to reward people on Twitter and Reddit for sharing quality content. Unlike other crypto currencies that are deflationary and have limited supply, Dogecoin is an inflationary coin because of its unlimited supply.
There is also a company calledLuminous, spun out of Princeton University, which is working to create spiking neural networks based on something it calls a laser neuron. Spiking neural networks more closely mimic how biological neural networks work and, like our own brains, are able to compute using very little energy. Luminous’s hardware is still in the early phase of development, but the promise of combining two energy-saving approaches—spiking and optics—is quite exciting. The technique that has empowered these stunning developments is called deep learning, a term that refers to mathematical models known as artificial neural networks. Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning, a branch of computer science based on fitting complex models to data. Carbonvote, the most well-known of these tools, has shown a clear preference for a hard fork since people began voting. This weekend, developers pointed to Carbonvote as ample indication of a community-wide consensus and used it to justify the release of new code for the hard fork.
As far as the network’s economy is concerned, Compass Mining’s Will Foxley estimates that due to the fee market changes in EIP-1559 miner income could fall by as much as 30%. While bitcoin is well known as ‘digital gold’, Lucas Outumuro, head of research at Into the Block, said that EIP-1559 will “fundamentally change” the way we value ether. Another startup using optics for computing isOptalysis, which hopes to revive a rather old concept. One of the first uses of optical computing back in the 1960s was for the processing of synthetic-aperture radar data. A key part of the challenge was to apply to the measured data a mathematical operation called the Fourier transform. Even now, applying the Fourier transform to large amounts of data can be computationally intensive. But a Fourier transform can be carried out optically with nothing more complicated than a lens, which for some years was how engineers processed synthetic-aperture data.
In the blockchain space, the term “difficulty” refers to how much effort it takes a computer to mine the next block. The difficulty is readjusted Ethereum Hard Fork automatically in order to stabilize block times. As more blocks are being mined in a given time frame, the difficulty is raised, and vice versa.
Privacy is Orchid’s mission—the team is continuously working to ensure that users can explore the Internet freely. For the foreseeable future, probabilistic nanopayments will play an essential role in that mission.
There is ongoing research on how to use formal verification to express and prove non-trivial properties. A Microsoft Research report noted that writing solid smart contracts can be extremely difficult in practice, using The DAO hack to illustrate this problem. The report discussed tools that Microsoft had developed for verifying contracts, and noted that a large-scale analysis of published contracts is likely to uncover widespread vulnerabilities. The report also stated that it is possible to verify the equivalence of a Solidity program and the EVM code.
Ethereum’s “London” hard fork has just activated, and it’s a major change. We will reopen deposits and withdrawals for ETH and other ERC-20 tokens once we deem the upgraded network to be stable, and we will not notify users in a further announcement.
To illustrate how that can be done, I’ll describe here a photonic device that, when coupled to some simple analog electronics, can multiply two matrices together. Such multiplication combines the rows of one matrix with the columns of the other.
Author: Vlad Hatze